To assess the demographic changes in terms of gender and age criteria in patients with coronary artery disease who have undergone coronary artery bypass grafting and to assess the possible risk factors leading to the demographic change.
Methods and Material:
During the time period 2016-2018, 56 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting details were retrospectively collected. Data of patients pertaining to their age, sex, personal habits such as smoking/ alcohol consumption and comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus/hypertension were collected and documented.
Overall 40 out of 56 patients were male (71.42%). The age group between 50 to 64 years was found to have the maximum number of patients, 26 (46.42%) with a notable increase in the demographic trend of the age group of 40-49 yrs; 17 (30.35%); thereby obviating the rising trend in cases in the middle age group. On study of risk factors contributing to the development of coronary artery disease, smoking was found to be the most common risk factor with a predominance of 66.07% of the total no. of patients found to be chronic smokers. Amongst smokers, largest number of smokers were found to be in the age group of 40-49 years, i.e out of 37 patients who were found to be smokers; 25 were in the age group of 40-49 years (67.56%). The second most prevalent risk factor was found to be hypertension amongst the study population; i.e 36 patients (64.2%) with the largest group of patients falling in the age category of 40-49 yrs (21 out of 36 patients; i.e 58.3%).
There has been a rising trend over the past decade in the number of patients in the age group of 40-49 years (middle age group) with a declining trend in the number of patients undergoing CABG in the elderly age group (>65 years). The maximum number of patients continues to be in the age group of 50-64 years with the trend remaining the same as compared to other studies. The rising trend of affected younger population can be attributed to prevalent social habits such as smoking and alcohol consumption. The increase in the number of chronic smokers has had a direct impact on the number of patients diagnosed to have CAD in the age category of 40-49 years. Amongst chronic illnesses, hypertension prevails to be the commonest associated risk factor amongst patients with CAD. It has been noted that though there is a rising trend in younger patients being diagnosed with coronary artery disease, the mortality rate in that age category continues to be in a declining trend in the post operative period.